Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. As a h13 tool steel properties pdf, tool steels are suited for use in the shaping of other materials.
With a carbon content between 0. There are six groups of tool steels: water-hardening, cold-work, shock-resistant, high-speed, hot-work, and special purpose. The choice of group to select depends on cost, working temperature, required surface hardness, strength, shock resistance, and toughness requirements. Tool steels are used for cutting, pressing, extruding, and coining of metals and other materials. W-group tool steel gets its name from its defining property of having to be water quenched. This group of tool steel is the most commonly used tool steel because of its low cost compared to others.
W-group tool steels must be subjected to a rapid quenching, requiring the use of water. W-steels are still sold, especially for springs, but are much less widely used than they were in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This is partly because W-steels warp and crack much more during quench than oil-quenched or air hardening steels. The toughness of W-group tool steels is increased by alloying with manganese, silicon and molybdenum. However, the fine edge probably rusts off faster than it wears off, if it is used to cut acidic or salty materials.
These are steels used to cut or form materials that are at low temperatures. This group possesses high hardenability and wear resistance, and average toughness and heat softening resistance. They are used in production of larger parts or parts that require minimal distortion during hardening. The use of oil quenching and air-hardening helps reduce distortion, avoiding the higher stresses caused by the quicker water quenching. More alloying elements are used in these steels, as compared to the water-hardening class. These alloys increase the steels’ hardenability, and thus require a less severe quenching process and as a result are less likely to crack.
They have high surface hardness and are often used to make knife blades. The machinability of the oil hardening grades is high but for the high carbon-chromium types is low. This series includes an O1 type, an O2 type, an O6 type and an O7 type. It is a cold work steel used for gauges, cutting tools, woodworking tools and knives.
It can be hardened to 66 HRC, typically used at Rc61-63. It is a cold work oil-hardening, graphitic tool steel with outstanding resistance to metal-to-metal sliding wear and galling. Modern air-hardening steels are characterized by low distortion during heat treatment because of their high-chromium content. It is commonly used for blanking and forming punches, trimming dies, thread rolling dies, and injection molding dies. Therefore, it is commonly used for dies, forming tools, and gauges that do not require extreme wear resistance but do need high stability. It is commonly used for gauges, arbors, shears, and punches.
Common applications for these tool steels include forging dies, die-casting die blocks, and drawing dies. D2 is very wear resistant but not as tough as lower alloyed steels. The mechanical properties of D2 are very sensitive to heat treatment. EN 20 B, is an air-hardening tool steel with a primary alloying element of nickel.