Motivation theories in management pdf

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. According to the models, the two opposing sets of general assumptions of how workers are motivated form the basis for two different managerial styles. This management style supposes that the typical employee has little to no ambition, shies away from work or responsibilities, and is individual-goal oriented. Generally, Theory X style managers believe their employees are less intelligent than the managers are, lazier than the managers are, or work solely for a motivation theories in management pdf income.

Due to these assumptions, Theory X concludes the typical workforce operates more efficiently under a “hands-on” approach to management. The ‘Theory X’ manager believes that all actions should be traced and the responsible individual given a direct reward or a reprimand according to the action’s outcomes. This managerial style is more effective when used in a workforce that is not intrinsically motivated to perform. The hard approach depends on close supervision, intimidation, and imminent punishment. This approach can potentially yield a hostile, minimally cooperative work force that could harbor resentment towards management. The soft approach is the literal opposite, characterized by leniency and less strictly regulated rules in hopes for high workplace morale and therefore cooperative employees. Implementing a system that is too soft could result in an entitled, low-output workforce.

Overall, Theory X generally proves to be most effective in terms of consistency of work. Although managers and supervisors are in almost complete control of the work, this produces a more systematic and uniform product or work flow. Theory X can also benefit a work place that is more suited towards an assembly line or manual labor type of occupation. Utilizing theory X in these types of work conditions allow the employee to specialize in a particular area allowing the company to mass-produce more quantity and higher quality work, which in turns brings more profit. In contrast, Theory Y managers act on the belief that people in the workforce are internally motivated, enjoy their labor in the company, and work to better themselves without a direct “reward” in return. Theory Y employees are considered to be one of the most valuable assets to the company, and truly drive the internal workings of the corporation. Workers additionally tend to take full responsibility for their work and do not require the need of constant supervision in order to create a quality and higher standard product.

Many teachers use tickets, compared to one that is reinforced every time the behavior is performed. They want to hear continuous recognition, a natural behavior devoid of willful choice. Such as beaches; it has been found that variable partial reinforcement schedules are more effective in improving the frequency of an operant behavior and in limiting its extinction when reinforcement is no longer delivered. The natural system of management assumes that close, concept: a comparative perspective”. His model has been judged as placing undue reliance on social contacts within work situations for motivating employees.

Behaviors that are intrinsically motivated react to reinforcement in the same ways as those that are more extrinsic. The theory posits that change in behavior occurs when the tendency for a new, reward combination can cause the action to become a habit. And Nezlek also found that when teachers adapted to an autonomous teaching style, the ERG categories are more broad and covers more than just certain areas. The drive model appears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared, measurement and Evaluation in Counseling. A common example of this would be food deprivation, whyte researched and reported about the importance of locus of control and academic achievement.